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It can based on the present knowledge, however, not be excluded that some harmful effects could arise from the occurrence of lead in soil and water; in particular in combination with the effects of other chemical substances or other stress fac-tors.

Bismuth shot are taken as very close to lead, and they can be used in all guns with risk for ricochets similar to lead shot. From time to time it is necessary to remove bullets from the earthen backstop – at least from the top layer – to avoid build up of bullets increasing the risk of ricochet and bullet fragmentation.

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According to the Danish Hunters Associa-tion [Kanstrup a], all predictions related to exploding guns, increased number of crippled game etc. Cartridges for pistol and revolver are according to AFEMS almost entirely used for sporting purposes. However, according to AFEMS there is no production in Spain of centre fire ammunition [Grodzki ], and the observation must be as-sumed to be an error based on statistical registration shortcomings.

For neurological, metabolic and be-havioral reasons, children are more vulnerable to the effects of lead than adults. Concerning equipment for commercial equipment national data are even scarcer than for angling.

Bekendtgrese reality the issue of cripple game can be reduced bskendtgrelse that this is a matter of hunter’s habits and not a matter of ammunition. Effects may range from inhibition of en-zymes to the production of marked morphological changes and death. For lead wires and lead bead strings used for lead line production – the main application of lead for commercial fishing – there seems to be a common European market.

A solid asphalt surface may be used as an alternative to horizontal nets. Bismuth and tungsten based cartridges are sold for hunting of fur game hare, hekendtgrelse deer and similar and together with tin shot beendtgrelse use in forest areas or when risks of ricochets are present. Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of New printing machines would be required 75, machines 42, Total machinery adaptation rounded , Note 1 Totals have been adjusted to account for non AFEMS members in accordance with table 3.

In the environment effects are generally limited to specially contaminated areas. The lead colleted bullet and particles can be directed to recycling. Use of lead for am-munitions manufac-turing P: Other concerns related to the use of lead for sinkers is that they are often manu-factured by home-casting or small scale casting in small enterprises which is not likely to be equipped with adequate emission abatements technology and thus may result in relatively high emissions of lead to the environment.


In Denmark use of lead shot bekendtgrelae restricted to a few shooting ranges and steel shot is actual the domi-nant ammunition used for clay pigeon shooting. From both types of traps the bullets bekendtgfelse be removed by either sifting or centrifugal treatment. Such berms can be equipped with large nets placed vertically on top of the berms in order to intercept shot flying over the berms.

Due to the binding capacity of the soil minerals and humus, groundwater usu-ally contains very low concentrations of lead, and the diffusion of lead from and the top soil layers to the groundwater must be expected to be a relatively slow process. UK has banned the use of lead split shot and lead sinkers above 0. The certification concerns thus primarily the toxicity of the materials to birds when ingested. At the moment no comprehensive assessment of the potential health risk of a general increased lead concentration in the environment exist.

Finally, to estimate the costs related to restrictions on lead in the various applications and compare them to the emission reduction expected. On average non-lead shot gun ammunition for hunters are assumed to cost 3 times as much as lead shot ammunition. Fur-thermore, substitutes for “dust shot” seem not to be available, besides that their impact on birds has not been specifically documented. Lead will tend to accumulate in the anoxic zones of the sedimentation areas – probably e. The hunters experience with steel shot may be summarised into the statement that some time of acquaintance seems to be needed, as the ballistic properties of lead and steel shot differ due to the lower weight and higher hardness of steel shot compared to lead bekenctgrelse.

Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of …

However, a ban on lead shot for several shooting disci-plines will take effect from January The wad will have to be redesigned if a different metal is used. On other shooting ranges in Denmark the alternative accepted is steel [Winther ]. As new propellants are to be developed if lead is being substituted, so could also the corresponding primers. The total consumption for manufacturing is estimated at about 53, tonnes of lead. In contrast to inorganic lead compounds, tetra alkyl-lead is rapidly taken up by fish and rapidly eliminated after the end of the exposure.

However, it is relevant to note that national concerns and restrictions regarding the use of large lead sinkers and commercial equipment may also be argued by other concerns as e. Lead shot and fragments of lead shot in muscle tissues in waterfowl and other game may in special cases form a health risk to humans consuming this game. Cartridges for smooth-barrelled shotguns including air gun pellets; 30 Other sinkers may directly end up in sediments and the overall picture is that lead will accumulate in sedimentation areas and by time be buried in the sedi-ments.


Lead in food In the general non-smoking adult population, the major exposure pathway for lead today is from food and water. Practical solutions for hunters to remedy these consequences have been to use larger size steel shot and shortening the shooting distance thereby in-Different ballistic properties Advantages and drawbacks of restricting the marketing and use of lead in ammunition, fishing sinkers and candle wicks The same applies to bul-lets, for which military purposes, however, also is an important application.

There are only few countries in which the use of lead ammunition is banned, and in these countries range shooting for competitions is typically specifically exempted in order to maintain the competitiveness of the national sportsmen when training for international competitions.

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Bullet density equalling lead bullets is obtained by using materials like tungsten as composites with polymers or as an alloy with other metals like tin, nickel, iron etc. The major disadvantage is the price. Market The data available on consumption of lead for fishing equipment in the EU old or new Member States is rather scarce.

Basic characteristics of these substitutes compared to lead are presented below. For larger sinkers and other lures used in the sea and in large lakes, a signifi-cant home casting takes place, and these activities may increase as a conse-quence of a ban on the sale of lead sinkers. Again sifting is an appropriate method.

Regarding toxicity in soil the data available for tin, bismuth and tungsten are scarce and does in reality not allow a substantiated conclusion on whether these metals can be regarded as an im-provement compared to lead or not.

In Germany soil berms up to about 20 m high are being developed. It may be noted that CIP Permanent International Commission for the Proof of Small Arms to which several European Countries are a member, have estab-lished regulations related to steel shot cartridges and the proof requirements of guns used to fire steel shot ammunition – it is e.